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Full text of "Ovine myology"

ACES LIBRARY 




L I B RARY 

OF THE 

U N I VERSITY 

OF ILLINOIS 

NOTICE: According to Sec. 19 

(a) of the University Statutes, 
all books and other library 
materials acquired in any man- 
ner by the University belong to 
the University Library. When 
this item is no longer needed 
by the department, it should 
be returned to the Acquisition 
Department, University Library. 



AGRICULTURE ADMIN 



AT 






OVINE MYOLOGY 



R. G. Kauffman, L E. St. Clair, R. J. Reber 



OVINE MYOLOGY 



AUTHORS 

R. G. KaufFman, Assistant Professor of Meats Technology, Department of Ani- 
mal Science 

L. E. St. Clair, Professor of Veterinary Anatomy and Histology, Department of 
Veterinary Research 

R. J. Reber, Research Assistant, Department of Animal Science 



CONTENTS 

Description of the Study 2-4 

Definitions of Anatomical Terminology 4 

Transverse Sections A Through DDD 5-44 

Frontal Section of Breast and Foreshank, Section EEE 45 

Muscle Attachments and Actions 46-49 

Major Muscles in Wholesale and Retail Cuts of Lamb 50-51 

Chemical Composition and Relative Muscle Mass 52-53 

References 54 

Guide to Muscles, Bones, and Miscellaneous Components. . . .inside back cover 



Bulletin 698 

University of Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station 
December, 1 963 



DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY 



Experimentation and teaching of biological proc- 
esses arc increasingly necessary to develop under- 
standing of the nutritive, pathological, and carcass 
attributes associated with the production of domes- 
ticated animals. Efficient research and instruction 
in this area require fundamental information about 
muscles. This publication describes locations, at- 
tachments, and general actions of lamb muscles, and 
presents data on chemical composition and relative 
mass of individual muscles. 

A lateral view of the musculature of a lamb 
carcass is shown in Figures 1 and 2. The cutaneus 
trunci (muscle No. 8) and subcutaneous fat have 



been removed to expose the peripheral muscles. The 
rectus abdominis (65) is visible through the aponeu- 
roses of the obliques (44 and 45), and the fascia 
lata has been removed over the vastus lateralis 
(63). The drawing in Figure 3 identifies the por- 
tions of a lamb skeleton that are included in the 
transverse sections shown in the following pages. 
Figure 4 shows the location of each of the trans- 
verse sections. 

To provide distinct muscle identification in the 
sections shown on pages 5 through 45, a carcass 
containing large quantities of intermuscular fat was 
purposely selected ; this degree of fatness is not 




Lateral view of musculature of lamb carcass. (Fig. 1) 




Diagram of lateral view in Figure 1. (Fig. 2 



usually found and should not be interpreted as 
showing excellence. The lower portions of the pel- 
vic and thoracic limbs were removed at the tibio- 
tarsal (tarsus (j) shown in Figure 3) and radio- 
carpal joints respectively, and the head was removed 



at the atlanto-occipital joint. The carcass was frozen 
and then separated into right and left sides. The 
right side was cut into cross-sections one inch in 
thickness to show the longitudinal progression of 
muscles and their relationship to the skeleton and to 




Lateral view of the lamb skeleton included in the transverse sections. (Fig. 3) 



\ K \ 


lllil 


til 


l r 

vlw 

I \ 

Jl A 


X 1 



\CC\DD 



EEJ 



\GG) 



U-.k 



iLL' 



VV 



Location and identification of transverse sections. (Fig. 4) 







fat deposits. Since it was impossible to remove all 
cross-sections from one side, the left side was used 
for sections OO to ZZ, and the photographs were 
reversed. Section EEE was taken from another 
carcass. 

The photographs of the 56 transverse sections (A 
through DDD) are 72 percent of the original size 
of the sections, and are in relative proportion to 
each other. Section EEE, because of its size, is 45 
percent of the original size. The diagrams that ac- 
company each photograph serve only to identify the 



items in the photographs and are not in proportion 
to each other. In the diagrams, individual muscles 
are shown in gray, bones are shown in black, and 
miscellaneous components are shown with diagonal 
lines. The white areas represent fat. Each dia- 
gram's position is identified anatomically by terms 
appearing to the right and below the diagram. 

A fold-out section of the back cover carries a 
guide to the diagrams in which each muscle, bone, 
and miscellaneous component appears, as well as the 
identifying key for each. 



DEFINITIONS OF ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY 

Abduction — movement of the part away from the midline. 

Adduction — movement of the part toward the midline. 

Aponeurosis — a heavy fascial sheet. 

Caudal — toward the tail. 

Cranial — toward the head. 

Deep (profundus) — away from the surface. 

Distal — usually applied to the limbs, toward the more movable portion. 

Dorsal — toward the back or top line of the body. 

Extension — straightening of the limbs and vertebral column. 

Fascia — a sheet of connective tissue. 

Flexion — bending of the limbs at the joints, and bending of the vertebral column. 

Lateral — away from the median plane. 

Linea alba — white line in ventral midline of the abdomen made by the coming together of the 

aponeuroses. 
Medial — toward the median plane. 
Plane, frontal — one which divides the body into dorsal and ventral portions perpendicular to the 

median and transverse planes. 
Plane, median — one which divides the body in the midline vertically and longitudinally. 
Plane, sagittal — one which is parallel to the median plane but lateral to it; the median plane has been 

referred to as the median sagittal plane. 
Plane, transverse — one which is perpendicular to the median plane, dividing the body into segments 

vertically. 
Pronation — the turning downward of the palm or sole of the forefoot. 
Proximal — usually applied to the limbs, toward the attached or less movable portion. 
Rotation — pivoting on the long axis. 
Superficial (superficialis) — toward the surface. 

Supination — the turning upward of the palm or sole of the forefoot. 
Ventral — away from the back or top line of the body. 



TRANSVERSE SECTIONS 



Sections A through NN are transverse to the 
longitudinal axis of the carcass and extend 
from the distal extremity of the tibia (k) to 
the cranial cervical region. The caudal view of 
each section is shown. In some sections of this 
group, the cutaneus trunci (8) does not ap- 
pear, or appears so slightly that it has not been 
identified on the diagram. Normally this mus- 
cle should have appeared in all sections from 
N to about II. 

Section A 



Section D 





Section B 



24,26 



P 




(24 and 26 in Sections B and C are 
barely visible in photographs.) 



Section C 




Section E 




Section F 






54,18,17 



Section G 





lateral 



Section H 





Section I 





cranial 



Section J 





A 



Section K 



W 



M| 




lateral 




Section L 



* 





10 



Section M 





11 



Section N 





12 



Section O 





13 



Section P 




Section Q 




**>* 






14 



Section R 




w 




Section S 




4 



lateral 




Section T 



15 





16 



Section U 





Section V 



17 





18 



Section W 






19 



Section X 




20 



Section Y 





21 



Section Z 




aitral 



22 



Section AA 







\ 





51 ventral 



Section BB 



23 




lati ■ il 




24 



Section CC 




(96 is barely visible in photograph.) 



25 



Section DD 



&** 1 . 




lateral 




ventral 



26 



Section EE 




Section FF 








la feral 



28 



Section GG 







n 3 




ventral 



Section HH 



29 





enifal 



30 



Section 




Section JJ 



31 





lateral 



32 



Section KK 




lateral 



ventral 



33 



Section LL 





■nlral 



34 



Section MM 





ventral 
(34 is barely visible in photograpb.) 



Section NN 




1 





35 



Sections OO to ZZ illustrate the muscles paralleling the longitudinal axis 
of the thoracic limb from the base of the scapular cartilage (Cs ) to the distal 
extremities of the radius (g) and ulna ( 1 ) . Re fore these sections were cut, the 
limb was removed lateral to the serratus ventralis (80), so that only the 
insertions of some of the muscles that run from the body to the limb arc 
included. The proximal view of each section is shown. 

The sternocephalicus (84) and sternothyrohyoideus (85) were parti- 
ally removed or contracted at time of slaughter and thus do not appear 
in some of the following sections. 



Section OO 



Section PP 



96 



lateral 



1961 



34 



'38 





lateral 



36 



Section QQ 





lateral 



caudal 



Section RR 



37 




lateral 




caudal 



38 



Section SS 





Section TT 




39 




40 



Section UU 




lateral 







41 





Section WW 





i audal 



42 



Section XX 





Section YY 





Section ZZ 







43 



Sections AAA to DDD are transverse to the longitudinal axis of the 
cervical vertebrae (m). The caudal view of each section is shown. The 
sternocephalicus (84) and sternothyrohyoideus (85) were partially re- 
moved or contracted at time of slaughter and thus do not appear in some 
of the following sections. 

Section AAA 




Ln- 




Section BBB 





44 



Section CCC 





Section DDD 





45 



FRONTAL SECTION OF BREAST AND FORESHANK 

Section EEE 



Section EEE is a proximal 
view of the area where the 
hreast and foreshank are 
separated from the rack 
and shoulder in the fabri- 
cation of these wholesale 
cuts. The cranial portion 
(arm) is approximately at 
the level of Section UU. 




Literal 




38 



caudal 

. and a are n > > > idem 
.ill locatii 



46 



DESCRIPTION OF MUSCLE ATTACHMENTS AND ACTIONS 



Number and name of muscle 



Location and attachments 



Action 



6 Brachiocephalicus 



42 
46 
66 

67 

68 

74 

84 



Longus colli 

Obliquus capitis caudalis 

Rectus capitis dorsalis (major et 
minor) 

Rectus capitis ventralis major 



Rectus capitis ventralis minor 

Scalenus (dorsalis 
ventralis) 

Sternocephalicus 



Scalenus (dorsalis, medius 
ventralis) 



85 Sternothyrohyoideus 

86 Subclavius 



2 


Anconeus 


3 


Biceps brachii 


5 


Brachialis 


7 


Coracobrachialis 


9 


Deltoideus 



1 1 Extensor carpi obliquus 



12 Extensor carpi radialis 
19 Extensor digiti medialis 

14 Extensor digitorum communis 

16 Extensor digiti lateralis 

13 Extensor carpi ulnaris 



20 Flexor carpi radialis 

21 Flexor carpi ulnaris 

23 Flexor digitorum profundus 

25 Flexor digitorum superficialis 

34 Infraspinatus 

56 Pronator teres 

87 Subscapularis 



Muscles of the Neck 

Attaches to the arm and runs along the neck, passing in front of 
the shoulder to attach to the cervical transverse processes and nuchal 
area. 

Lies ventral to the vertebral column in the neck and first part of the 
thorax. 

Runs obliquely from the axis to the atlas. 

Lies over the atlas. 

Attach to the base of the skull ventrally; the major arises from the 
transverse processes of the first several cervical vertebrae, and the 
minor arises from the first cervical vertebra. 

Runs from the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae of the 
last part of the neck to the lateral surface of the first few ribs. 

Long round muscle; arises from the cranial part of the sternum with 
its fellow of the other side and inserts in two parts onto the man- 
dible and mastoid process. 

Arises on the cranial portion of the sternum and runs to the larynx 
and hyoid bone. 

Small muscle attaching to the deep portion of brachiocephalicus 
just in front of the shoulder. 

Muscles of the Thoracic Limb 

Small muscle lying partly under the lateral head of the triceps; 
attaches along the distal portion of the shaft of the humerus and on- 
to the olecranon. 

Runs from the tuberosity of the scapula through the intertuberal 
groove of the humerus to the tuberosity of the radius. 

Occupies the musculospiral groove of the humerus and inserts on 
the cranial portion of the proximal extremity of the radius. 

Small muscle running from the coracoid process on the medial side 
of the tuberosity of the scapula to the middle third of the medial 
surface of the humerus. 

Two-headed muscle, one part arising from the acromion and the 
other on the surface of the infraspinatus. They insert on the deltoid 
tuberosity. 

Lies in the extensor group near the distal end of the forearm; runs 
from the lateral border of the radius and ulna to the medial side of 
the carpus and adjacent area of the metacarpus. 

Occupy the area cranial and lateral in the forearm. They are listed 
in turn from front to back; the digital extensor tendons continue 
down to the digits, the lateral one being for the lateral digit, the 
common for both digits, and the medial for the medial digit. The 
extensor carpi radialis inserts on the front of the proximal part of 
the metacarpus, the extensor carpi ulnaris on the accessory carpal 
bone and the adjacent part of the metacarpus. Except for the ex- 
tensor digiti lateralis, they arise on the humerus. 

Lie medial and caudal in the forearm and arise from the medial 
epicondyle of the humerus. The digital flexors go to both digits. 
The flexor carpi radialis inserts on the medial part of the proximal 
portion of the metacarpus; the flexor carpi ulnaris inserts on the 
accessory carpal bone. 

Fills the infraspinous fossa and inserts just below the lateral tuber- 
osity of the humerus. 

Lies in front of the flexor carpi radialis, attaching to the medial 
epicondyle of the humerus and the medial surface of the radius just 
above its middle. 

Lies along the medial surface of the scapula (subscapular fossa) and 
inserts on the medial portion of the proximal extremity of the hu- 
merus. 



Extends the shoulder and ( 
tends and inclines the he 
and neck. 

Flexes the neck. 



Rotates the atlas and ti- 
the head. 

Extends the head. 
Flex the head. 

Pulls the neck laterally. 

Flexes the head and neck a 
inclines them to one side 

Flexes the neck and head. 

Assists the brachiocephalic 



I 



Extends the elbow. 



Extends the shoulder a 
flexes the elbow. 

Flexes the elbow. 



Adducts the arm and re 
forces the joint. 

Flexes the shoulder. 



Extends the carpus. 



Action corresponds to t 
name except for the exten 
carpi ulnaris, which is 
flexor of the carpus. 1 
digital extensors also exte 
the carpus; the more cran 
of the group rising from t 
humerus also flex the elbo 

The carpal flexors flex t 
carpus; the digital flexi 
flex the carpus and digits 



Holds the scapula and 1 
merus together laterally. 

Pronates the lower porti 
of the limb. 

Holds the scapula and r 
merus together medially. 



47 



Jumber and name of muscle 



Location and attachments 



Action 



















Muscles of the Thoracic Limb (continued) 




8 


Supraspinatus 




Fills the area of the supraspinous fossa and inserts in front of shoulder 
joint on the medial and lateral tuberosities of the humerus. 


Extends the shoulder. 


9 


Tensor fasciae 


antebrachii 


Lies on the caudal part of the long head of the triceps and inserts on 
the olecranon. 


Extends the elbow and flexe 

the shoulder. 


1 


Teres major 




Runs from the caudal border of the scapula medial to the teres minor 
and inserts on a small area on the medial surface of the shaft of the 
humerus. 


Flexes the shoulder. 


'2 


Teres minor 




Runs from the caudal border of the scapula to an area near the del- 


Flexes the shoulder. 



)?'8, 99 Triceps brachii (caput laterale, 
caput longum, caput mediale) 



Diaphragma 



S5 Intercostales externi 



i6 Intercostales intend 



59 Levatores costarum 



51 Pectoralis profundus 



52 Pectoralis superficialis 



Rectus thoracis 



Retractor costae 

Serratus ventralis (cervicis, 
thoracis) 



95 Transversus thoracis 

44 Obliquus externus abdominis 

45 Obliquus internus abdominis 
60 Quadratus lumborum 

65 Rectus abdominis 

94 Transversus abdominis 



toid tuberosity. 

Inserts by a coming together of the three heads on the olecranon of 
the ulna. They lie behind the humerus, the lateral head attaching 
to the shaft more laterally and the medial head more medially. The 
long head lies directly behind the shoulder joint and has an origin on 
the caudal border of the scapula. 

Muscles of the Thorax 

Forms a musculotendinous partition between the thoracic and ab- 
dominal cavities. It is convex toward the thorax and has sternal, 
costal, and lumbar attachments. 

Fill the intercostal spaces from the levatores costarum to the costa- 
chondral junction. The fibers travel for short distances downward 
and backward between adjacent ribs. 

Fill the entire intercostal space deep to the externi. The fibers travel 
for short distances downward and forward between adjacent ribs. 



Extends the elbow. The Ionj 
head also Hexes the shoulder 



Series of small muscles, each attaching to a transverse process of a 
thoracic vertebra and running downward and backward to the ad- 
jacent rib near its vertebral end. 

Lies deep to the pectoralis superficialis. It attaches to the sternum 
except at its cranial end and courses laterally and cranially, becom- 
ing narrow as it attaches to the tuberosities of the humerus. 

Runs from the cranial portion of the sternum to turn down on the 
medial surface of the elbow to attach to the humerus and adjacent 
fascia. 

Runs from the middle of first rib downward and backward across Expiration, 
several ribs. 



Lies in the angle between the vertebral column and the last rib. 

The two parts form a large fan attaching to the transverse processes 
of the cervical vertebrae in the caudal portion of the neck and the 
sides of the ribs, in a serrated arrangement, to converge on the medial 
surface of the vertebral portion of the scapula. 

Fibers run transversely across the dorsal surface of the sternum and 
costal cartilages. 

Muscles of the Abdomen 

A flat muscle arising from the ribs, except the first few. The fibers 
run downward and backward, inserting by means of an aponeurosis 
onto the linea alba and pelvis. 

Lies deep to the externus and arises from the tuber coxae and fascia 
of the loin. The fibers run downward and forward to insert by means 
of an aponeurosis onto the costal arch and linea alba. 

Lies ventral to the last few ribs, the lumbar transverse processes, 
and the wing of the sacrum. 

The long flat muscles of each side lie next to each other invested in 
a fascial sheath. Each runs from the lateral part of the sternum and 
costal cartilages to insert on the pubis. There are tendinous inscrip- 
tions crossing the fibers. 

Arises from the costal arch and fascia of the loin and runs trans- 
versely as a deep muscle to insert by means of an aponeurosis onto 
the linea alba. It does not reach the pubis. 



Inspiration. 



Pull each rib forward; in- 
spiration. 

Pull each rib backward; ex 
piration. Working together 
the external and internal in 
tercostals are inspiratory. 

Advances ribs; inspiration. 



Adducts the limb. 



Adducts the limb. 



Retracts the last rib. 

Slings body between the fore 
limbs. 



Depresses the distal ends o 
ribs; expir.it ion. 



Compresses the abdomen. 



Compresses the abdomen, 



Flexes the loin and bends il 
to one side laterally whei 
acting singlj . 

Compresses the abdomen 

flexes the vertebral column 



Compresses the abdomen. 



48 



Number and name of muscle 



Location and attachments 



Action 



33 Iliocostal is (cervicis, thoracis, 

lumborum) 

Interspinals (not separated from 
group i 

37 Intertransversarii 

40 Longissimus (capitis, atlantis) 

41 Longissimus (cervicis, thoracis, 
lumborum) 

43 \lultihdus 

7(> Semispinalis capitis 

82 Spinalis (cervicis, thoracis) 

38 Latissimus dorsi 
4 1 ' Omotransversarius 

71 Rhomboideus (cervicis, thoracis) 

78 Serratus dorsalis caudalis 

79 Serratus dorsalis cranialis 

83 Splenius 

96 Trapezius (cervicis, thoracis) 



1 Adductor (longus, brevis, magnus) 

4 Biceps femoris 



15 Extensor digiti lateralis 

17 Extensor digitorum longus 

18 Extensor digiti medialis 
54 Peroneus tertius 

93 Tibialis cranialis 



22 Flexor digitorum profundus 

24 Flexor digitorum superficialis 

Id < iastrocnemius 

27 Gemelli 

28 Gluteus accessorius 

29 Gluteus medius 

30 Gluteus profundus 

31 Gracilis 

32 Iliacus 

57 Psoas major 



Muscles of the Back 

Lie along the dorsal and lateral portion of the vertebral column. Erect or extend the vertebi 
The fibers usually do not run the full length of the muscles but arise column, 
and insert throughout the distance. 



A fan-shaped muscle arising from the fascia of the back and loin to 
insert on the medial surface of the shaft of the humerus. 

A long, flat band attaching to the ventral portion of the scapular 
spine and the wing of the atlas. 

Lies deep to the trapezius with fibers arising on the dorsal midline 
and running downward and backward to the medial side of the 
scapular cartilage. 

Arises from the fascia of the loin. The fibers run downward and 
forward to attach to the last few ribs. 

Arises from the fascia of the back. The fibers run downward and 
backward to attach to the ribs medial to the scapula. 

Conies from the cranial edge of the fascia of the back deep to the 
scapula and runs forward to attach to the cervical transverse proc- 
esses and nuchal area. 

A fan-shaped muscle arising from the dorsal midline and converging 
on the scapular spine. 



Muscles of the Pelvic Limb 

Deep to the gracilis. It runs from the pubis and ischium to the 
medial part of the stifle and femur. 

Arises from the sacrosciatic ligament, sacrum, and tuber ischii and 
descends behind the hip joint to spread out lateral to the tibia and 
fibula to attach to the fascia in that area. 

Form a group on the lateral and cranial portion of the tibia and 
fibula. All except the extensor digiti lateralis arise from extensor 
fossa of the femur, the lateralis being distal to the rest of the group 
on the tibia. They descend in front of the hock. The extensors of 
the digit go on down to the digits (longus to both digits, medialis to 
the medial digit, and lateralis to the lateral digit). The peroneus 
tertius and tibialis cranialis end on the tarsus and metatarsus. 

Lies behind the tibia and has several parts which run behind the 
hock to go on down to the digits. 

Arises with, but deep to, the gastrocnemius. It is part of the tendo 
calcaneus but goes on down behind the limb to the digits. 

Arises by two heads from the femur caudally toward the distal ex- 
tremity. It inserts as a common tendon (tendo calcaneus) onto the 
tuber calcis of the hock. 

Go from the lateral border of the ischium to the trochanteric fossa. 

A separate deep portion of the gluteus medius. 

Occupies the area on the dorsal surface of the ilium; inserts onto the 
trochanter major of the femur. 

Deep to the gluteus medius from the area above the acetabulum to 
the trochanter major. 

Arises in common with its fellow of the other side from the pelvic 
symphysis. It inserts on the medial surface of the stifle. 

The psoas major occupies the area ventral to the lumbar transverse 
processes and quadratus lumborum separated from the bodies of the 
vertebrae by the psoas minor. It extends to the trochanter minor 
of the femur. As it passes beneath the ilium, it is joined by the 
iliacus forming the iliopsoas. 



Flexes the elbow. 

Pulls the neck laterally. 

Moves the scapula forwa 
and upward. 

Pulls ribs backward; expii 
tion. 

Pulls ribs forward; inspii 
tion. 

Extends the neck and he 
and inclines them to one sic 

Raises the scapula, advai 
ing and retracting it, depen 
ing on the location of t 
fibers. 

Adducts the limb. 

Extends the hip, flexes t 
stifle, and extends the hoc 
When the foot is plac 
firmly it extends the stir 

Extend the stifle and flex t, 
hock. The digital extensi 
also extend the digits. 



Extends the hock and fle> 
the digits. 

Flexes the stifle and dig 
and extends the hock. 

Flexes the stifle and exten 
the hock. 

Rotate the limb outward. 

Extends the hip. 

Extends the hip and abdui 
the limb. 

Extends the hip. 

Adducts the limb. 

Flex the hip and rotate t 
limb outward. 



49 



slumber and name of muscle 



Location and attachments 



Action 



7 Obturatorius externus 

8 Obturatorius internus 
Pectineus 

3 Peroneus longus 

5 Popliteus 

8 Psoas minor 

9 Quadratus femoris 

-64 Quadriceps femoris (rectus femoris, 
vastus intermedi us, vastus lateralis, 
vastus medialis) 



13 


Sartorius 


15 


Semimembranosus 


n 


Semitendinosus 


M 


Soleus 


)0 


Tensor fasciae latae 



12 Sacrococcygei + Intertransversarii 



8 Cutaneus trunci 



Muscles of the Pelvic Limb (continued) 

Lies ventral to the pelvic floor and passes laterally to insert in the 
trochanteric fossa of the femur. 

Lies on the pelvic floor and passes through the obturator foramen to 
insert in the trochanteric fossa of the femur. 

Runs from the pubis to the medial surface of the shaft of the femur. 

Lies in front of the extensor digiti lateralis to attach to the metatar- 
sus distally. 

Lies just proximal to the origin of the gluteus profundus; courses 
from the lateral epicondyle of the femur to spread out over the caudal 
surface of the tibia. 

Lies medial to the psoas major and inserts on the shaft of the ilium. 

Runs from the tuber ischii to the femur below the attachment of the 
other lateral rotators. 

Four-headed group lying in the cranial part of the thigh to insert on 
the patella and patellar ligaments. The rectus femoris arises from 
the ilium near the acetabulum while the other three parts arise from 
the femur. 

Incompletely divided into two parts; arises on the surface of the 
psoas minor and shaft of the ilium to insert on the medial surface of 
the proximal extremity of the tibia. 

Courses from the tuber ischii downward and forward behind the ad- 
ductor to the medial epicondyle of the femur. 

Runs from the tuber ischii to the tibia and the fascia medial to it. 
It lies behind the semimembranosus. 

Lies in front of the lateral portion of the gastrocnemius, which it 
joins. 

Arises from the tuber coxae to insert on a broad fascia on the lateral 
surface of the thigh. 

Muscles of the Tail 

They are arranged about the tail as indicated by their names. In 
addition a group of fibers (coccygeus) arises from the area above the 
acetabulum and runs to the lateral portion of the first few coccygeal 
vertebrae. 



Miscellaneous Muscles 

Extends over the shoulder, thorax, and abdomen in the superficial 
fascia. The fibers are thin in the paralumbar area and partly cover 
the lateral part of the shoulder (called cutaneus omobrachialis). Ven- 
trally the fibers approach the midline near the umbilicus. 



Adducts the limb; rotates 
the limb outward. 

Rotates the limb outward. 



Adducts the limb and flexes 
the hip. 



Flexes the hock. 



Flexes the stifle; rotates the 
limb inward. 



Flexes the pelvis on the 
vertebral column. 

Rotates the limb outward. 



Extend the stifle; the rectus 
femoris also flexes the hip. 



Flexes the hip; adducts the 
limb. 



Adducts the limb; extends 
the hi]). 

Extends the hip; flexes the 
stifle. 

Assists the gastrocnemius. 
Flexes the hip. 



The actions correspond to 
the positions of the parts. 
The coccygeus depresses and 
turns the tail to one side and 
.lets as a portion of the pelvic 
diaphragm. 

Twitches the skin. 



50 



MAJOR MUSCLES IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL CUTS OF LAMB 







Leg (A-Q) 



Loin (Q-Y) 



Rack (Y-GG) 



Leg of lamb 



Sirloin chops 



Loin chops or 
roast 



Kidney chops 



Rib roast or 
chops 



61-64 Quadriceps femoris: I-M, lv 

4 Biceps femoris: F-O, lv 

75 Semimembranosus: G-K, lv 

29 Gluteus medius: L-Q, lv 

26 Gastrocnemius: B-I, lv 

1 Adductor: J-K 

77 Semitendinosus: E-K, lv 



29 Gluteus medius: N-Q, lv 

45 Obliquus internus abdominis: O-Q 

90 Tensor fasciae latae: N-P, lv 



41 Longissimus (cervicis, thoracis, lumborum): Q-Y, lv 
57 Psoas major: Q-Y 



41 Longissimus (cervicis, thoracis, lumborum): U-W, lv 
57 Psoas major: U-W 



41 Longissimus (cervicis, thoracis, lumborum) 

80 Serratus ventralis: CC-GG 

82 Spinalis: BB-GG, lv 

38 Latissimus dorsi: AA-GG, lv 



Y-GG, lv 



Shoulder (GG-NN 
and BBB;and 
OO-UU) 



Shoulder roast 



Blade chops 



Arm chops 



80 Serratus ventralis: GG-MM, QQ 

97-99 Triceps brachii: II-LL, RR-UU, lv 

34 Infraspinatus: GG-MM, OO-SS, lv 

88 Supraspinal: II-MM, OO-RR 

41 Longissimus (cervicis, thoracis): GG-KK 

51 Pectoralis profundus: GG-MM, RR-UU, lv 



80 Serratus ventralis: GG-II 

34 Infraspinatus: GG-II, lv 

41 Longissimus (cervicis, thoracis): GG-II 

82 Spinalis: GG— II, lv 



97-99 Triceps brachii: SS-UU, lv 

51 Pectoralis profundus: SS-UU, lv 



Neck (BBB-DDD) Neck slices 



40 Longissimus (capitis, atlantis): BBB-DDU 

76 Semispinalis capitis: BBB-DDD 

6 Brachiocephalicus: BBB-DDD, lv 

67 Rectus capitis ventralis major: BBB-DDD 



Shank, breast 
and flank (UU-ZZand 
everything ventral 
to EEE) 



Shank 



Riblets 



Rolled breast 
and flank 



97-99 Triceps brachii: UU-VV, EEE, lv 
12 Extensor carpi radialis: YV-ZZ, lv 
23 Flexor digitorum profundus: WYY-ZZ 



35-36 Intercostals: Y-II, EEE 

44 Obliquus externus abdominis: X-EE, EEE, lv 



65 Rectus abdominis: N-EE 

44 Obliquus externus abdominis: T-EE, EEE, lv 

94 Transversus abdominis: T-CC 

51 Pectoralis profundus: AA-KK, EEE, lv 

80 Serratus ventralis: CC-JJ, EEE 



* Muscles listed in order of relative size according to portion of muscle represented in each retail cut. 
lv = lateral view (page 2) 



51 



WHOLESALE LAMB CUTS AND THE RETAIL CUTS MADE FROM EACH 




Blade Chop Arm Chop Neck (bone in) Boneless Triangle Triangle ^^ Slew (bone in) 

Courtesy National Livestock and Meat Board, Chica 



52 



CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND RELATIVE MUSCLE MASS OF THREE EWE LAMBS 



Three purebred 1 [ampshire ewe lambs sired by the same ram 
and subjected to similar environmental conditions were slaugh- 
tered at intervals corresponding to three different live weights 
(32.7, 42.7, and 51.3 kg.). During the slaughtering process, 
special precautions were taken to keep intact all carcass fat and 
muscles. Each carcass was chilled to an internal temperature 
of 3° C. and then separated into right and left sides. The 
muscles from the right side were dissected according to pro- 
cedure^ described, by Fourie (1962). Each muscle was freed of 
all visible external fat (intermuscular fat) and tendons and 
weighed to the nearest 0.1 g. Weights were also recorded for 
subcutaneous fat, intermuscular fat, internal cavity fat, bones, 
and other miscellaneous components. An arbitrary designation 
was established to separate subcutaneous from intermuscular 
fat ; it was assumed that fat on the outer side of the surface 
muscles (except the cutaneus trunci (8)) was subcutaneous, 
and fat lying between and below the level of the surface mus- 
cles was intermuscular. 

Large and small muscles were analyzed according to the 
following procedures: 1 ) Each muscle weighing more than 
25 g. was homogenized in a Waring blendor and transferred 
to an aluminum drying pan. Each sample was placed in a 55° C. 
drying cabinet for 48 hours to partially remove the moisture. 
Four additional hours in a 95° C. oven were required to remove 
any additional moisture. The dried sample was weighed to the 
nearest 0.1 g., ground in a mortar, transfered to a plastic bottle, 
and stored at — 20° C. Percent total lipid, protein by Kjeldahl 
analysis, and wet ash were determined in duplicate samples 
as described by the A.O.A.C. (1960). 2) Muscles weighing less 
than 25 g. were diced and dried for 48 hours in a 70° C. vacuum 
oven. Each sample was subsequently weighed and the lipid was 
extracted. After redrying, each sample was subjected to a wet 



ash analysis as described by the A.O.A.C. (1960). Protein w. 
determined by subtracting the sum of the lipid and ash fro 
the total weight of the dried sample. Proximate analyses fj 
all muscles were expressed on a dried weight basis, and do n 
necessarily total 100. Due to sampling and to the minuteness 
some muscles, an absolute limit of ± 5% was established as 
reasonable range of error for the sum of the components, 
maximum relative error of 7.5% was considered appropria 
for duplicate analyses. 

Relative muscle mass was defined on two bases: 1) t 
weight of the freshly dissected and defatted muscle was e 
pressed as a percent of total carcass muscle; 2) total proti 
for each dried muscle was expressed as percent protein co 
tributed by each muscle to total carcass protein. 

The muscles within three groups [intercostales externi a- 
intercostales interni (35 and 36), intertransversarii and mul] 
fidtis ( ?)7 and 43 ) , and the obturatorius externus and obtur 
torius interims (47 and 48)] were not separated from ea 
other. The proximate analysis data are therefore reported 
the same for the individual muscles of each pair. The relati 
mass was arbitrarily divided equally between each of the inti 
costal muscles and each of the obturator muscles; howev< 
because of the large difference in size between the intertrai 
versarii and the multifidus, no attempt was made to ascertii 
their separate contributions to muscle mass and, their combin. 
relative mass appears only with the multifidus data. 

The extensor carpi obliquus (11), pronator teres (56), a! 
rectus thoracis (69) were missing from one or more of 
carcasses. This was attributed to the difficulty in detecting th^ 
during dissection and to the possibility that they may not ex.c 
in some individuals. 



LAMB I 



LAMB II 



LAMB III 



Age at slaughter, days 

Live sheared and shrunk weight, kg. 
Chilled carcass weight, kg 

Muscle (lipid-free basis), percent . . 

Protein, percent 

Fat (extractable lipids), percent 

Subcutaneous 

Intermuscular 

Intramuscular 

Thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic 

Bone, percent 

Miscellaneous (organs, tendons, 
etc.), percent 




Total carcass composition 



8.14 

13.32 
8.00 
3.13 
3.36 



55.12 
27.81 



13.68 
3.39 







47.90 




46.40 




8.39 


37.14 


8.55 


38.65 




15.70 




16.23 






13.95 




13 84 






2.76 




3.1" 






4.73 


10.66 
4 30 


5.29 


10.42 
4.53 





Proximate an 


Individual muscle 
ilysis Relative mass 


romposition and relative 
Proximate analysis 


mass 
Relative mass 


Proximate analysis 

Lipid, Protein, Ash, 
pet. pet. pet. 


Relative mas,, 


No. and name of muscle 


Lipid, 
pet. 


Protein 
pet. 


Ash, 
pet. 


Fresh 
wt. 

basis, 
pet. 


Protein 
basis. 
pet. 


Lipid, Protein, Ash, 
pet. pet. pet. 


Fresh 
wt. 

basis, 
pet. 


Protein 
basis, 
pet. 


Fresh 
wt. 

basis, 
pet. 


Prot. 
basi 
pet 


1 Adductor 

2 Anconeus 

3 Biceps brachii 

4 Biceps femoris 


14.4 
19.6 
15 4 
19.9 
19.3 
32.9 
15.2 
30.4 
25.4 
. 32.2 


81 .4 
70 . 5 
75.1 
76.2 
70.0 
60.6 
74.9 
65.5 
64.6 
58.9 


7.5 
6.9 

6 6 
6.5 
7.7 
7.6 
7.3 
5.1 
7.0 
4.7 
- missing 
8.2 
6.4 
9.2 

7.2 

7.1 


1.71 
.17 
.52 

5.53 
.41 

1.08 
.14 

2.77 
.44 

1.67 


1 . 95 
15 

.57 
6.32 

.40 

1.11 

14 

3.37 

.41 
1 43 


8.7 81.8 7.4 

7.7 80 . 1 9.2 

14.6 78 6.3 
19.3 71.3 6.7 
13.8 75.8 7,4 
17,1 73 . 6 5.9 

11.7 77.2 8.1 
18.1 71.5 4.8 
12 9 74,7 7.6 
40 55,4 4.2 
26.5 64,8 5,7 

10.1 86.1 7.9 
5.3 83 6 8.0 
4.1 83.2 9.7 

9.8 79.2 8.1 

11.2 78.1 7.7 


1.71 
.06 
.47 

5.80 
.42 

111 
.15 

2.65 
.45 

1.53 
.02 
.79 
.37 
.11 

.12 

.12 


1.94 
.07 
.47 

5.76 
.42 

1 . 15 
.17 

2.56 
.40 

1.37 
.03 
.83 
.37 
.12 

. 13 

.14 


5.3 
18.5 

119 

23.0 

13.8 

32,5 

18.3 

30.7 

23.5 

34 4 

24 9 

8 9 

9.8 

7.9 

8,8 

7.2 


82.2 
71.7 
78.0 
67.4 
75.0 
59.6 
71.6 
64.5 
66.2 
57.6 
66.6 
83.7 
82.1 
80.4 

80.4 

81.9 


8.3 
6 8 
7.4 
7.1 
8.3 
6.5 
7.1 
5 4 
7.2 
5.3 
5 6 
7.9 
9.7 
8 6 

7.9 

8.0 


2.08 
. 14 
.47 

5.42 
.32 

1,07 
.16 

1.85 
.37 

1.76 
.01 
.60 
.33 
.11 

.11 

.14 


-'! 

,4 

5 -' 

1 (. 
(i 
.6 
3 

1 

2 
1 


6 Brachiocephalicus 

7 Coracobrachial) s 

9 Deltoideus 

11 Extensor carpi obliquus 

l 2 Extensor carpi radialis 


9.2 

12.5 
. 5.6 

8.3 

. 11.1 


79.6 
78.1 
82.2 

81.5 

78.6 


.64 

.45 
.11 

.25 

.17 


.67 
.49 

. 12 

.29 

.17 


1 1 Extensor digitorum com lis 

15 Extensor digiti lateralis 

16 Extensor digiti lateralis 

(thoracic limb) 












(Table co 


ncluded on next page) 

















53 



Individual muscle composition and relative mass (concluded) 
LAMB I LAMB II 



LAMB 111 



K and name of musi le 



Proximate analysis 



Lipid, Protein, Ash, 
pet. pet. pet. 



Relative mass 



Extensor digitorum longus 13.9 

Extensor digiti medialis 

(pelvic limb) 7.8 

Extensor digiti medialis 

(thoracic limb) 10. 7 

Flexor carpi radialis 6.1 

Flexor carpi ulnaris 8.2 

Flexor digitorum profundus 

(pelvic limb) 19.6 

Flexor digitorum profundus 

(thoracic limb) 13.6 

Flexor digitorum superficialis 

(pelvic limb) 7.1 

Flexor digitorum superficialis 

(thoracic limb) 12.6 

Gastrocnemius 6.0 

Gemelli 17.2 

Gluteus accessorius 20.4 

Gluteus medius 10.6 

Gluteus profundus 19.7 

Gracilis 19.8 

Iliacus 26. 1 

lliocostalis 39.0 

Infraspinatus 15.2 

Intercostales externi 51.9 

Intercostales interni 51.9 

Intertransversarii 52 .5 

Latissimus dorsi 16.9 

Levatores costarum 42.9 

Longissimus (capitis, atlantis) . . 43.0 
Longissimus (cervicis, 

thoracis, lumborum) 23.9 

Longus colli 19.9 

Multifidus 52.5 

Obliquus externus abdominis. . . 32.8 
Obliquus internus abdominis. . . 15.4 

Obliquus capitis caudalis 21.9 

Obturatorius externus 19.7 

Obturatorius internus 19.7 

Omotransversarius 28.3 

Pectineus 10.9 

Pectoralis profundus 17.6 

Pectoralis superficialis 37.4 

Peroneus longus 12.9 

Peroneus tertius 14.6 

Popliteus 22.2 

Pronator teres 32.7 

Psoas major 13.8 

Psoas minor 25.7 

Bnadratus femoris 22.8 

fiuadratus lumborum 31.3 

Quadriceps femoris, rectus 

femoris 12.7 

Quadriceps femoris, vastus 

intermedius 43. 1 

Quadriceps femoris, vastus 

lateralis 15.3 

Quadriceps femoris, vastus 

medialis 9.8 

Rectus abdominis 41.9 

Rectus capitis dorsalis 31.9 

Rectus capitis ventralis major . . 15.0 
Rectus capitis ventralis minor. . 24.5 

Rectus thoracis 

Retractor costae 50 

Rhomboideus 31.1 

Sacrococcygei + Inter- 
transversarii 36.4 

Sartorius 19.5 

Scalenus 39.6 

Semimembranosus 12.') 

Semispinalis capitis 44 , 7 

Semitendinosus 20. 2 

Serratus dorsalis caudalis 33. 1 

Serratus dorsalis cranialis 39. 7 

Serratus ventralis 40 6 

Soleus 47.4 

Spinalis 49. S 

Splenitis 23.9 

Sternocephalicus 19 .4 

Bternothyrohyoideus 32.4 

Subclavius 42.3 

Subscapularis 22.0 

Bupraspinatus Ill 

Tensor fasciae antebrachii 12.0 

Tensor fasciae latae 36.9 

Teres major 18 7 

Teres minor 16.5 

Tibialis cranialis 21.5 

Transversus abdominis 38.4 

Transverius thoracis 42.5 

Trapezius 18 7 

Triceps brachii, caput laterale. . 13.7 
Triceps brachii, caput Iongum. . 9.2 
Triceps brachii, caput mediale 18 1 



77.0 


9.3 


81.8 


9 1 


81.4 


7.5 


70.5 


6.9 


76.1 


7.3 


84. 1 


7.7 


77.4 


7.0 


81.4 


7.6 


68.9 


10.9 


70.3 


6.3 


74.8 


7.2 


70.8 


6 5 


69.0 


8.6 


64 3 


6 6 


54.2 


5.6 


76.6 


7.1 


42.4 


2.8 


42.4 


2.8 


40.6 


3.9 


72.4 


6.6 


49 8 


4.3 


46.4 


5.2 


68.4 


8.3 


72.0 


6.7 


40.6 


3.9 


61 .9 


5.9 


74.5 


7.2 


68.7 


6 5 


68.0 


7.0 


68 


7.0 


65 6 


6.7 


81.9 


8 5 


71.2 


5.9 


56.5 


4 8 


75.9 


8.2 


74.9 


7.5 


67.9 


6.9 


56 9 


7.4 


72.8 


8.5 


63.7 


5.9 


66 3 


7.9 


60.6 


5.2 


75.0 


8.0 


50 . 4 


6 


72.6 


7.3 


75.3 


10.7 


52.1 


4.4 


58.5 


6.6 


73.8 


8.2 


64.4 


8.1 






59.7 


7.2 


60.9 


5.7 


53 . 9 


6.7 


70.8 


6.7 


52.3 


5.1 


79.4 


8.6 


46.3 


5.1 


70. 1 


6.7 


58.4 


5 6 


48.1 


9. 1 


51.0 


5.0 


37.5 


12.1 


45.7 


4.0 


66.2 


6.9 


70.3 


7.3 


56.6 


7» 


41 S 


10.2 


71.1 


7.5 


66. 1 


6.8 


76 5 


8.5 


58.2 


5.6 


71.2 


7.1 


71 


6 5 


67.6 


8.0 


53.4 


4.9 


50 . 3 


4.2 


74.4 


7.1 


75.1 


8.1 


78.6 


7.9 


71 6 


7.4 



F'resli 
wt. 

basis, 
pet. 



.15 
.14 



.14 

.26 



.83 
.62 



.35 

1.97 

.03 

.47 

3.96 

.35 

1.01 

.56 

.43 

1.91 

1.30 

1.30 

1.54 
.16 
.03 

9.38 
141 

1 . 95 

1 . 95 

1.72 

.41 

.28 

.28 

.47 

.63 

2.85 

1.15 

.17 

.38 

.29 

.01 

1.65 

.63 

.05 

.35 

2.26 

1 05 

2.63 

.89 
2.55 
.22 
.19 
.04 



.08 

.73 

.22 
.22 
.44 

5 50 

117 

1 69 
.16 
.02 

4.60 
.01 

1 . 64 
. 11 
.38 
,06 
02 

1 03 

1.77 
.24 

1 . 12 
.55 
.17 
.15 

2.09 
.11 
.78 
.89 

2.57 
.25 



Protein 
basis, 
pet. 



13 

. 14 
.28 



63 



.37 



2.23 

.03 

.50 

4.32 

.37 

.76 

.52 

.37 

1.84 

1.17 

1.16 

1.56 



9.98 

1.42 

1 69 

1 91 

1.86 

.41 

.30 

.30 

.43 



Proximate analysis 



.68 

2.89 

1.10 

.18 

.45 

.31 

.02 

1.42 

.53 

.05 

.36 

2.10 

.87 

2.40 

.8') 
2.33 
.22 
.19 
.04 



.08 
.69 

.22 
.21 
.41 

6.23 
.87 

1 56 

15 

.02 

3.90 
.01 

1 46 
. 12 
.38 
.06 
.02 
,95 

1.92 
.11 
.97 
.53 
.17 
.15 

1 ,73 
.21 
.87 
.88 

2.63 
.24 



Lipid. 

pet. 



Protein, 
pet. 



Ash. 
pet. 



Relative mass 

Fresh 

wt. Protein 
basis, basis, 

pet. pet. 



9.9 

0.5 

117 
5.5 
8.6 

12 5 

7.9 

12.0 



11.0 
24.1 
22.4 
10.0 
16.1 
13.') 
26.3 
40.2 
13.6 
58.3 
58.3 
48.8 
21 .8 
57.3 
51.1 

20.9 
15.9 
48.8 
15.6 
18.6 
15.0 
17.9 
17.') 
25.1 
12.5 
16.2 
29.1 
11.3 
9.4 
15.1 



9.1 
41 .5 
27.7 
36.8 

8.4 

34.3 

14.0 

16.8 
34.6 
26.4 
16.6 
14.6 
47. 1 
27.2 
33.4 

48 5 
12 6 
30 2 

11 5 
3 7 '> 
15 7 
37.8 
37.5 
30 . 8 
35 K 
44.5 
27.6 
18 9 

12 3 
31.4 

13 l 
20.2 
13 1 
U I) 
17 
1 1 ') 

') 6 
25 I 
17 ') 
15.5 
13 

10 6 

21 7 



78 4 

78.1 
83.4 
81.0 

78 

81.4 

78.3 

82.4 
82.2 
65.2 
72.1 
83 
75.0 
79.4 
64.7 
51.4 
80.2 
36.8 
36.8 
46.1 
69.9 
36.5 
46 1 

73.8 
75.8 
46 1 
77.9 
72.8 
74.3 
72.7 
72.7 
65.7 
78.6 
73.4 
64.8 
77.6 
80.7 
73.9 



79.1 
4'). 7 
62.2 

55.2 



80.5 

76.0 
58.7 
64.0 
73.9 
75.3 
46.0 
62.6 
58.8 

44.8 
7 7 6 
61.2 
81.3 
59.1 
76 ') 
54 3 
52 8 
60 1 
52.0 
47. 1 
62 . 9 
71.7 
76.8 
5') . 5 
77.0 
712 
7 6 8 
(>(> 1 

72 6 
7 7.6 
7'), 2 
64 o 
43 2 

73 5 

7') 6 

S! , 
6X 3 



9.3 

8.6 

7.2 
8.1 
7.5 

6.8 

8.2 

6.7 

6.9 
8.2 
7.7 
8.0 
7.6 
5.9 
7.5 
6.1 
4.5 
6.8 
3.0 
3.0 
3.9 
6.8 
3.3 
5.5 

7.1 
6 

3.9 

6.3 

6.6 
7.6 
6.4 
6.4 

6.2 
5.9 
6.5 
5.5 
8 1 
6.9 
7.9 

missing 
7.3 
5.9 
7.2 
5 . 

8.0 



5,5 

3.7 
6.8 
5.5 
7 6 
4.5 
7.2 
4 9 
6, 7 
5.9 
') 2 
3.7 
6.5 
6.4 



6.2 

6.7 
8 3 

7,2 
6.5 
7.5 
i I 
8.3 
5.6 
5 ') 
7 1 
7 ') 
7 1 
7 o 



.12 
.09 

.17 

.82 

.55 



.27 

1 86 

.03 

.42 

3 37 

.31 

.99 

.52 

.41 

2.07 

1.36 

1 35 

1.65 

.16 

1 24 

9.85 
112 

1.94 

2.52 

1.73 

.39 

.22 

.21 

.43 

.59 

2.95 

1 1') 

.16 

.38 

.27 



.28 

.19 

.13 
.11 

.22 

.87 
.60 
.66 

.31 

2.16 

.03 

.41 

3.84 

.33 

1.07 

.51 

.38 

2. 14 

1.03 

1.02 

1.50 

.13 

1.03 

10.92 
1 .10 

1 .85 

2.71 

1.61 

.36 

.24 

.23 

.43 

.66 

2.88 

1.06 

.17 

.45 

.28 



Proximate analysis 



Lipid, Protein, Ash, 
pet. pet. pet. 



Relati\<- 

\vt Protein 

basis, 
pet. pit. 



1.72 
.52 
.07 
.46 

2 18 

.97 



.92 

2.85 
.20 
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REFERENCES 

1. Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, Washington, D. C. 

Official Methods of Analysis, 9th ed. 1960. 

2. Briskey, E. J., Kowalczyk, T., Blackmon, W. E., Breidenstein, B. B., 

Bray, R. W., and Grummer, R. H. Porcine Musculature-Topog- 
raphy. Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station Research 
Bulletin 206. 1958. 

3. Fourie, P. D. Growth and Development of Sheep, a Carcass Dissec- 

tion Technique. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 
S. 1 and 2. 1962. 

4. International Anatomical Nomenclature Committee. Nomina Ana- 

tomica. Second Edition. Excerpta Medica Foundation, New 
York. 1961. 

5. May, N. D. S. The Anatomy of the Sheep. The University of 

Queensland Press, Brisbane, Queensland. 1955. 

6. Sisson, S., and Grossman, J. D. The Anatomy of the Domestic Ani- 

mal, 4th ed. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia and London, 1953. 

7. Tucker, H. Q., Voegeli, M. M., and Wellington, G. H. A Cross- 

Sectional Muscle Nomenclature of the Beef Carcass. Michigan 
State College Press. 1952. 

8. Weniger, Joachim-Hans, Steinhauf, Diether, Pahl, Gerda H. M. 

Muscular Topography of Carcasses. Bayerischer Landwirt- 
schaftsverlag, Munich. 1963. 



3M— 12-63— 81634 



GUIDE TO MUSCLES, BONES, 

AND MISCELLANEOUS COMPONENTS 

ON REVERSE SIDE 




NOMENCLATURE GUIDE* 




MUSCLES: Id. No., Name, and Section Location 

. Adductor (longus, brevis, magnus): J-K 

. Anconeus: UU-VV, EEE 

. Biceps brochii: ll-MM, SS-VV, EEE 

. Biceps femoris: F-O, Iv 

;. Brachial-*: LI, TT-VV, EEE 

,. Brachiocephalics: LL-NN. QQ-VV, AAA-DDD, 

EEE, Iv 
' Coracobrachial!*: II, SS-UU 
I. Culaneus trunci: M-AA, FF— II, PP-UU, EEE 
I. Deltoideui: JJ-MM, RR-TT, Iv 
). Diophragma: W-DD, EEE 
I. Extensor carpi obliquus (obduclor digit! primi 

longus): XX-ZZ 
? Extensor corpi radiolis: VV-ZZ, Iv 

3 Extensor carpi ulnar is (ulnoris lateralis): WW-ZZ, tv 

4 Extensor digitorum communis: WW-ZZ, Iv 

5. Extensor digit! lateralis (pelvic limb): A-F, Iv 

6. Extensor digiti lateralis (Ihorocic limb): WW-ZZ, Iv 

7. Extensor digitorum longus: A-G 

8 Extensor digiti mediolis (pelvic limb): A-G 

9. Extensor digit! mediolis (thorocic limb): WW-ZZ, Iv 

0. Flexor corpi radiolis: WW-ZZ 

1. Flexor carpi ulnaris: WW-ZZ 

2 Flexor digitorum profundus (pelvic limb): A-F, Iv 

3. Flexor digitorum profundus [thoracic limb): WW-ZZ 

4. Flexor digitorum superficiolis (pelvic limb); B-l 

5. Flexor digitorum superficiolis [thorocic limb): XX-ZZ 

6. Gastrocnemius-. B-l, Iv 

!7, Gemelli: nol shown (see page 48) 
!8. Gluteus accessorius: l-P 
!9. Gluteus medius: L-Q, Iv 

10. Gluteus profundus: L-0 

11. Gracilis: G-K 

12. iliacus: l-P 

13. Iliocostalis (cervieis, thoracis, lumborum): X-JJ 
34 Infraspinatus: FF-MM, OO-SS, Iv 

35. Intercosloles extern!: Y-JJ. EEE 

36. Intercosloles interni: Y-JJ, EEE 

37. Intertransversorii: Q-DD, AAA-CCC 

38. Latissimus dorsi: AA-KK, OO-SS, EEE, Iv 
39 Levalores coslorum; FF-HH 

40. Longissimus (capitis, allontis): AAA-DDD 

41. Longissimus [cervieis, thoracis, lumborum]: O-KK, Iv 

42. Longus colli: FF-MM, AAA-DDD 

43. Multifidus: O-ll, AAA-CCC 

44 Obliquus externus abdominis: Q-EE, EEE, Iv 

45. Obliquus in.ernus abdominis: O-W 

46. Obliquus capitis caudalis: DDD 

47. Obturalorius exlernui: K-L 

48. Obturalorius internus- K-L 

49. Omo.ransversorius: LL, QQ-SS, AAA-DDD, Iv 

50. Peetineus: J-M 

51 Pectorolis profundus: AA-MM, RR-UU, EEE, Iv 

52. Pectorolis superficiolis: GG-MM, UU-VV, EEE, Iv 

53. Peroneus (fibulafis) longus: A-H, Iv 

54. Peroneus (fibuloris) lerlius: A-G, Iv 

55. Popliteus: E-G 

56. Pronator teres: WW-XX 

57. Psoas major: L-Y 

58. Psoas minor: O-W 

59. Quodrotus lemoris: not shown (see page 48) 

60. Quodrotus lumborum: P-BB 

61. Quadriceps temoris, rectus femoris J-M 

62. Quodriceps femoris, vastus intermed.us: l-l 
us lateralis: l-M, Iv 



mod.ol. 



I-L 



. Quadriceps femoris, vastus 

. Quodriceps femoris, vastus 

i. Rectus abdominis: N-EE 

, Rectus capitis dorsalis (major e. minor): CCC-D0D 

'. Reclus capitis ventrolls mojor (longus cop.t.s). 

AAA-DDD 
I. Rectus capitis ventrolis minor (Rectus coplt.s 

venlralis): DDD 






3) 



Rectus thoracis (obliquus thoracis): JJ-KK 

Retractor costae: X 

Rhomboideus (cervieis, thoracis): FF-KK, AAA-BBB 
, Sacrococcygei + Inlertraniversoril: K-N 
. Sartorius: l-L 



74. Scalenus (dorsolis 



medius, venlralis) KK-MM, AAA 

Semimembranosus: G-K, Iv 

Semispinals capilis: HH-LL, AAA-DDD 

Semitendinous: E-K, Iv 

Serratus dorsolis caudalis: Y— AA 

Serrolus dorsolis croniolis: GG-HH 

Serratus venlralis [cervieis, thoracis): CC-MM, QQ, 
AAA-BBB, EEE 
, Soleus: F-H 

. Spinalis (cervieis, thoracis): BB-KK, AAA, Iv 
. Splenius: LL, AAA-DDD 
. Sternocephalieus: LL-NN, AAA-BBB, EEE 
. Slernothyrohyoideus: MM-NN, EEE 



. Tensor fan 



SS 
ris: FF-LL, OO-SS 
luti ll-MM, OO-RR 
ioe antebrochii: HH-II, OQ-VV, EEE, 
ioe lotae: K-P, Iv 
r: GG-KK, QQ-TT 
n JJ-IL, RR-SS 



abdoi 



96. Trapezius (c< 



Ay, R-CC 
: DD-JJ 
Ihoracis): CC-KK, OO-QQ, 



Triceps brochii, caput laterole: JJ-LL. TT-VV, EEE, Iv 
Triceps brochii, caput longum: ll-KK, RR-VV, EEE, Iv 
Triceps brochii, coput mediole: TT-VV, EEE 

BONES: tdent.. Name, and Section location 

Costae (1-13): X-KK, EEE, Iv 

Femur: H-M, Iv 

Fibula: G 

Humerus: KK-MM, SS-VV, EEE, Iv 

Os coxae: K-P, Iv 

ilium: N-P, Iv 

ischium: K-L, Iv 



pubis: L 

acetabulum 
Patella: 1, Iv 



M 



ii GG-ll, OO-RR, Iv 
n EE-KK, Iv 



Iv 



k Tibio: A-G, Iv 

| Ulna WW-ZZ, Iv 

11 olecranon: WW, Iv 

m Vertebrae, cervical (1-7): KK-MM, AAA-DDD, Iv 

„ Vertebrae, Ihorocic (8-20): X-JJ, Iv 

Vertebrae, lumbor (21-26): Q-X, Iv 

p Vertebrae, sacral (sacrum) (27-30): N-P, I* 

q Vertebroto, coccygeal (31 — ): K-M, Iv 

r Tuber coleis: A, Iv 

MISC. COMPONENTS: Ident., Nam., and Sections 

Cr Cnrtilaoe. eoslal: X— KK 

'; s;.: «.p»'». »-"• ""-"■ °°-° o 

C« Corliloge, xiphoid 00 

Kd Kidney |«en)i U-* 

1° lio,omenrum noehoe. tt-KK. ***-000 

INo lymph "ode, deep inguinol ' 

INb lymph "Ode. lumbor: U. Y-Z 

INc lymph node. popMeol. ' 

LNd lymph node. p-.l.»or.l, N 

lN , lymph node. p,e.topolor ; MM. »*A 

To I.ndo col.oneu. (Achilli.li i-°